History of Bangladesh


The 13th and 15th Century From the 13th Century A.D :

The Buddhists and Hindus were swamped by the flood of Muslim conquerors and the tide of Islam up to 18th century. Sometimes there were independent rulers like the Hussain Shahi and Ilyas Shahi dynasties, while at other times they ruled on behalf of the Imperial seat of Delhi. 

From the 15th Century :

The Europeans, namely Portuguese, Dutch, French and British traders exerted an economic influence over the region. British political rule over the region began in 1757 A.D., when the last Muslim ruler of Bengal was defeated at Palassey. In 1947 the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Present Bangladesh became the Eastern Wing of the then Pakistan. But the movement for autonomy of East Pakistan started within a couple of years because of language and cultural differences and economic disparity between the two wings. 

The Language Movement :

The Language Movement of 1952 to recognize Bangla as a state language may be termed as the first step towards independence. Political and economic deprivation of the Bengalees prompted Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Father of the Nation, to put forward in 1966 his historic six points, the "Magna Carta" which in effect structured the foundation for East Pakistan's future independence.

The War of Liberation :

In the 1970 elections, even though the Awami League emerged as the largest party in Pakistan Parliament, it was not allowed to form the government by the ruling military junta. In the backdrop of a non-cooperation movement launched against the military regime by Awami League. Bangabandhu declared at a historic public meeting held at Ramna Race Course (renamed Suhrawardy Uddyan) on 7 March, 1971, attended by around 2 million people, "The struggle this tune is the struggle for freedom, the struggle this tune is the struggle for independence." It was a defacto declaration of independence. Thus in a preplanned manner on 25th March 1971. The Pakistan army embarked on what may be termed as history's worst genocide. A military crackdown was ordered, and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib was arrested and taken away to West Pakistan. But just before he was arrested he sent out a call for the liberation war to begin. Known as the Declaration of (lie War of Independence, this hurriedly written historic document read as follows:
"Pak Army suddenly attacked EPR Base at Pilkhana, Rajarbagh Police Line and killing citizens. Street battles are going on in every street of Dacca. Chittagong. I appeal to the nations of the world for help. Our freedom fighters are gallantly fighting with the enemies to free the motherland. I appeal and order you all in the name of Almighty Allah to fight to the last drop of blood to liberate the country. Ask Police, EPR, Bengal Regiment and Ansar to stand by you and to fight. No compromise. Victory is ours. Drive out the enemies from the holy soil of motherland. Convey this message to all Awami League leaders, workers and other patriots and lovers of freedom. May Allah bless you. Joy Bangla". 

Independence :

After nine months of war, the Pakistani occupation forces surrendered in Dhaka on 16th December. 1971 after killing an estimated three million people. Due to the heroic resistance and supreme sacrifices of the valiant freedom fighters Bangladesh finally became an independent sovereign state. Father of the Nation Bangahandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the founder- president of Bangladesh. He was subsequently assassinated on 15th August, 1975 by a group of conspirators. After 21 years of military and authoritarian rule, Bangabandhu's party-Bangladesh Awami League led by his illustrious daughter Sheikh Hasina, swept hack to power through a very free and fair parliamentary election held under a Caretaker Government in June. 1996.

Principal Cities of Bangladesh :

Among the major cities of Bangladesh are Dhaka, the capital, with 3,368,940 inhabitants (1991); Chittagong, the leading port, with 1,566,070 inhabitants; Khulna, a rapidly growing center for small-scale industry, with 601,051 inhabitants; Narayanganj, the inland port for Dhaka, with 268,952 inhabitants; and Rajshahi, located in a silk-producing area, with 324,532 inhabitants. Quick Look Bangladesh

Official Name :

The People's Republic Of Bangladesh. Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India.

Geographic coordinates : 24 00 N, 90 00 E.

Capital : Dhaka (Area 414 sq. km. Master plan 777 sq. km.).

Currency :

Currency unit is Taka. Notes are of 1,2,5,10,20,50,100 and 500 Taka. Coins are of 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 Poisha (100 Poisha = 1 Taka).

Language :

Bangla is the state language. English is also widely spoken and understood. Arabic is read and spoken for religious purposes.

Government type : Parliamentary democracy.

Population : = 133,376,684 (July 2002 est.) 

Religions : Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, others 1.2% .


Total    : 144,000 sq km.

Land   : 133,910 sq km.

Water : 10,090 sq km.

Boundary :

Bounded by India from the north, east and west, Burma from the south-east and the Bay of Bengal from the south.

Climate :

Tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Rainfall : Lowest 47" and highest 136". 

National Days :

National Martyrs Day ( February 21).

Independence Day ( March 26 ).

Victory Day ( December 16).
Principal Rivers :

Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Madhumati, Surma and Kushiara.

Principal Crops :

Rice, Jute, tobacco, tea, sugarcane, vegetables, potato, pulses, etc. 

Fruits :

Mango, banana, pineapple, jack-fruit, water-melon, green coconut, guava, lichis, etc. 

Major Industries :

Jute, sugar, paper, textiles, fertilizers, cigarette, cement, steel, natural gas, oil-refinery, newsprint, power generation, rayon, matches, fishing and food processing, leather, soap, carpet, timber, ship-building, telephone, etc. 

Airports :

Hajrat Shajalal International Airport, Dhaka, Chittagong International Airport, Sylhet International Airport and domestic airports at Jessore, Sylhet, Cox's Bazar, Rajshahi and Saidpur.

Sea Ports : Chittagong, Mongla. 

Time : GMT +6 hours.

Electricity : 220 volts, 50Hz.

Weights & measures : Metric.

Tourist Interests :

Longest sea beach, colorful tribal life, centuries' old archeological sites, the Sundarbans (home of the Royal Bengal Tigers and spotted deer), largest tea gardens, interesting riverine life, etc.

Government of Bangladesh [Quick Look]

Country Name: Bangladesh.

Conventional long form : People's Republic of Bangladesh.

Conventional short form : Bangladesh.

Data code : BG. 

Government type : Republic.

Capital : Dhaka

Administrative divisions :

7 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi,Rangpur & Sylhet.

Independence :

26 March 1971 (from Pakistan).

National holiday :

Independence Day - 26 March (1971), 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh, 21st February and more.

Constitution :

4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times. 

Legal system :

Based on English common law.

Executive branch:

Chief of state :

President Jilluear Rahaman note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution, the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections

Head of Government : Prime Minister Shake Hasina.

Cabinet : Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president.

Elections :

Election results :

Legislative branch :

Unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve five-year terms.

Judicial branch :

Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the president.

Political parties :

Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP; Awami League or AL; Jatiyo Party or JP; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP.

International organization participation :


Flag description :

Green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam. 

 Dhaka - The Capital of Bangladesh :

Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. With its colorful history and rich cultural traditions, Dhaka is known the world over as the city of mosques and muslin. Its fame attracted travelers from far and near throughout the ages. Today it has grown into a mega city of about 8.5 million people, with an area of about 1353 sq. km. becoming the hub of the nation's industrial, commercial, cultural, educational and political activities.

Dhaka is located in the geographic center of the country. It is in the great deltaic region of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The city is within the monsoon climate zone, with an annual average temperature of 25 deg C (77 deg F) and monthly means varying between 18 deg C (64 deg F) in January and 29 deg C (84 deg F) in August. Nearly 80% of the annual average rainfall of 1,854 mm (73 in) occurs between May and September.

Dhaka is located in one of the world's leading rice and jute or natural rawjute growing regions. Its include jute textile industries, muslin and cotton industries and also food processing, especially rice milling. A variety of other consumer goods are also manufactured here. The Muslim influence is reflected in the more than 700 mosques and historic buildings found throughout the city. The University of Dhaka (1921) and several technical schools and museums are located here. 


Area : 815.85 Sq. kilometres (approx.)

Population : Sixteen million (approx.)

Climate :

Tropical, with heavy rainfall and bright sunshine in the monsoon and warm for the greater part of the year. The winter months, from November to March, are however, most likeable, cool and pleasant.

Temperature: Max. Min.

summer 36.7°C 21.1°c

Winter 31.7°C 10.5°c

Rainfall : 2540 mm annually.

Humidity : 80 percent (approx.)

Clubs :  

Dhaka Club, Dhaka :

Formed in 1851 in the name of Ramna Dhaka Club. Accom, Rest. & Bar, Swimming Pool, Indoor Games, Tennis, Squash Ph: 880-2- 8619180-4, 505800-4 

Golf Club, Kurmitola :

Temporary Membership for tourists available, Golf, Rest. & Bar. Ph: 880-2-605301 

Australian Club :

Rd. 83, Gulshan, Membership to all Australians and New Zeaianders, Swimming, Tennis, Squash, Volleybal,  Ph:880-2- 603775

American Club :

Gulshan, Membership open to all Americans and their families, Swimming, Tennis, Squash, Volleyball, Basketball, Rest, Ph: 880-2-8821025-27 

Swedish Club :

Rd. 47, Gulshan, open to all Swedesh and their guests, Swimming, Squash, Tennis, Ph: 880-2-601043. 

Netherlands, Recreation Cantre :

Road 74, house 33, Gulshan 2, members must be Dutch, Swimming Tennis, Rest, Ph: 880-2-602039